INDEX M - P
WASHINGTON (June 25) - The government hopes DNA tests to find the herd where the cow with mad cow disease
came from can lead to the source of the infection, an Agriculture Department official said Saturday.
On the question of whether excessive metals were found in the soil, the McElmurrays pointed to evidence in the
record from which a jury could find that ... there were unquestionably concentrations of at least some metals at issue
exceeding state and federal regulatory limits at levels so high as to classify the tested soils as hazardous wastes, the
Based on medical evaluation, immunological tests and lung biopsy organic toxic dust syndrome and pulmonary
fribosis were diagnosed in this young compost worker. He was medically removed and a worker's compensation
claim is pending.What that means is the poor fellow's lung tissue was thickening and he was unable to breath
properly -- he was Smothering to death,
The Kern County Grand Jury is recommending a ban on all biosolids being dumped in the county until there is
conclusive proof that the dumping on human sewage and industrial waste poses no health threats to animals or
humans or a threat to the area's underground water supply
The Milwaukee Story MILWAUKEE TURNS SCHOOLS AND PARKS INTO SUPERFUND
The EPA's PR strategy for sludge was first outlined in a 40-page report published in 1981 with a classic
bureaucratic title: Institutional Constraints and Public Acceptance Barriers to Utilization of Municipal
Wastewater and Sludge for Land Reclamation and Biomass Production. It warns that sludge farming
projects may be blocked by small local groups who feel their interests threatened. The strategy was to
disposed of the most toxic and hazardous sewage sludge on farmland, home lawns and gardens rather
than in regulated landfills. The permit writers would be responsible for the deaths, disease, cancer and
other health effects caused by sludge dumping.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS; LABORATORY SAFETY for some of the disease organisms in sludge, Bio
2 safety levels
For a number of reasons, it's easy to oppose spraying partially treated sewage sludge on farms near
your home. A contingency of Jefferson County residents have spent years fighting one local farm's
decision to use this nitrogen substitute on its nearly 1,000 acres of hayfields. According to local
environmentalists, it was political pressure that pushed a permit through the Environmental Protection
Division (EPD) five years ago, flying in the face of many in the agency's own recommendations against it
that first allowed biosolid sludge from Augusta-Richmond County treatment plants to be sprayed on the
INTRODUCTION................................ PERCEPTION PROBLEMS.................. DISINFORMATION..............................
PUBLIC PERCEPTION ISSUES.................... HISTORY OF SLUDGE TREATMENT AND USE......... TECHNOLOGY
AND TREATMENT.................... EFFECTS OF SLUDGE ON SOIL, CROPS, WATER..... PUBLIC HEALTH
CONCERNS...................... REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES.................. FEDERAL LAW.................................
ECONOMICS - LIABILITY - INSTITUTIONAL....... COMMON LAW..................................
NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE
Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production 1996
National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB)
NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE
Albert Page - Committee Chair Conflict Co-chair part 503 Peer Review Committee that
approve the science behind the sludge marketing rule.
The National Academies, NEWS 2002
Committee on Toxicants and Pathogens in Biosolids Applied to Land
Sewage Sludge Standards Need New Scientific Basis
WHAT IS NECROTIZING FASCIITIS AND WHY IS IT ON A RAMPAGE THROUGH TUCSON
Draft copy of some data to up date Chapter 7: Deadly Microbes, Deadly Deceit
Necrotizing fasciitis is the result of an invasive bacterial infection that destroys deep soft tissue in the
body very quickly. As the tissue is invaded and destroyed gas gangrene sets in and the toxic gases
generated by the bacteria can create toxic shock causing death within a few days or in the worse cases,
a matter of hours.
We're used to resistant staph in the hospital as a problem among patients with heart failure, liver failure,
cancer or other health problems," said David N. Gilbert of the Oregon Health Science University. ;
It's started attacking normal healthy people, causing serious, often fatal illness.
Recently, three farm-worker families in a neighborhood of Immokalee gave birth to severely deformed
children -- one without arms or legs, one without the capacity to keep his tongue from sliding back into
his throat, and one without a nose, an ear and with no visible sexual organs.
Respiratory hazards of organic dust exposure Exposures Respiratory effects
Vegetable: Grains, hay, pollen, cotton, wood
Animal: Dander, hair, feathers, skin, feces [sludge].
Fungal and bacterial antigens and toxins
Insect and mite antigens.
Mucous membrane irritation, bronchitis, asthma, nonasthmatic chronic airflow obstruction,organic dust
toxic syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis
The toxicities of many metals, such as mercury and lead, are known to man since the dawn of civilization.
Organic compounds of some heavy metals are known to have a particular toxic impact on the central
nervous system. Organomercury, particularly alkyl-mercuric compounds (e.g. methylmercury), has a
selective effect on the granule cells of the cerebellum, the nerve cells of the calcarine cortex, and the
sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The well known Minamata Bay disease is the result of a
massive epidemic episode of human exposure to alkylmercury contaminated food sources. Mental
retardation and other developmental defects are also known to be a consequence of exposure to this
Trace Organics and lnorganics in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges
Efforts to characterize major unknown organic components were limited to computer
comparisons of GC/MS peaks to the NBS mass spectral library.,a significant portion of the major peaks
were multi-component peaks whose identities remain completely unknown.
Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges
Although the use of sludge as a soil amendment is attractive, it is not without
potential health risks. Toxic chemicals, including heavy metals and industrial
organics, may enter the food chain and resent long-term health risks.
Pandemic diseases in the United States 1980 - 2007
When EPA left this small amount of information out of the final 1993 sludge policy regulation it had to be
with the deliberate intent to put farmers, home gardeners and the public at risk.EPA knew people were
going to be exposed and knew some were going to die. EPA knew that with even the best treatment
processes, these disease-causing agents were subject to explosive regrowth when placed on the land
or after the sludge was composted.
Also see Bacteria -- Viruses -- MSDA Sheets - Streptococcus and Staphylococcus
PATHOGENS AND INFECTIOUS TOXIN PROTEINS IN SLUDGE/BIOSOLIDS
Studies show EPA and its partners are destroying public health.
1,407 human pathogen species may be in sludge
EPA Pathogen/disease list - 2003
The potential for pathogen regrowth is the downside to sewage sludge being rich innutrients that
promote the growth of bacteria and fungi.Exotoxins;& proteins and peptides secreted into the
surrounding environment by growing cells are produced by both gram-negative and gram-positive
bacteria. They are usually the most toxic of the two general types of bacterial toxins. Because they can
retain their toxicity at extremely high dilutions, some exotoxins, including staphylococcal enterotoxins
and shigatoxin, are used as biological warfare agents.
Traces of endotoxins in food and water can cause headaches, fever, fatigue, and severe gastrointestinal
symptoms; however, their primary target is the lungs. In addition to the former symptoms, inhaling
endotoxin-contaminated dusts can cause acute airflow obstruction, shock, and even death
John Walker has been a key player in the sludge wars. First with USDA when he reported mixing lime
with sludge or earth temporarily prevented Salmonella from being detected in laboratory tests. Then
with EPA as a lead scientist in promoting sludge as a safe fertilizer. Walker also was a leader on the part
503 Peer Review Committee which gutted any human safety provisions that had been included in the
1989 proposed regulation.
All the scientists agree that exposure to pathogens in sewage sludge will cause gastroenteritis. Now we
see a new face on exposure to sludge. Doctors don't know its spread on home lawns as an unlabeled
fertilizer. They don't know the exposure can be spread on blowing dust. Pima County Arizona has been
warning residents there could be up two deaths a year from dust. They don't talk about their
sludge/biosolids disposal program
..foodborne illnesses cause 76 million cases of disease and 5000 deaths each year. ... Infections and
their consequences on pathogen loading of sewage and sewage sludge.
Pollutants - in sewage sludge biosolids and reclaimed water.
(2)EPA's inability to use the term ;Biosolids as a substitute for sewage sludge: Although research
revealed that government agencies do not have much credibility on this (sludge) issue, health concerns
regarding biosolids are such that a;higher authority;is needed to give assurances about safety;
(CPB-p.7) ;It is apparent that the NRC report is the highe authority. Plus, Dr. Alan Rubin who supervised
the creation of the sludge rule was loaned to the WEF to overcome the EPA restriction on the use of the
term Biosolids and actively promote the product.
While the NRC Report appears to be a well written literature review of selected scientific studies, with
the appropriate scientific disclaimers and qualifying statements for problems the Committee found,
co-author Michael Baram, a professor of public health law at the Boston University School of Public
Health, one of the 14authors of the report, disagrees with the reports conclusion, not for the
misstatements of facts on the federal regulations or law, but for the infectious disease aspects.
Pretreatment - removal credit lawsuit
When sewage flows into wastewater treatment plants, it runs first into a tank filled with natural bacteria.
The organisms essentially break down the incoming waste, which eventually separates into clean water
and "waste activated sludge," a combination of bacteria and the sticky, slimy goo it exudes. In
early laboratory simulations, McMahon found that prions-which are sticky themselves-latch onto the
bacterial goo and remain infectious.
Preliminary EPA research showing the wastewater treatment process can not remove from biosolids
disease-causing proteins known as prions could complicate the treatment industry's push to dispose of
biosolids through land application, rather than in landfills or by incineration, EPA scientists say.
PROTOZOA IN SLUDGE - BIOSOLIDS - Reclaimed water - Parasites
167; 131.36 Toxics criteria for those states not complying with Clean Water Act section 303(c)(2)(B).top(a)
Scope. This section is not a general promulgation of the section 304(a) criteria for priority toxic
pollutants but is restricted to specific pollutants in specific States.(b)(1) EPA's Section 304(a) criteria for
Priority Toxic Pollutants
However, the NRC Report also notes that coliform levels may not be reduced by composting.(94) Not
onlythat but, according to the EPA, salmonella is subject to regrowth within 14 hours after leaving the
treatment plant unless it is incorporated into the soil. Most sludges used for fertilizer on crops are
treated to a less stringent level, Class B.
There are five million people worldwide that are affected by this disease. In the United States there are
over 200,000 patients with Pulmonary Fibrosis. As a consequence of misdiagnosis the actual numbers
may be significantly higher. Of these more than 40,000 expire annually. This is the same as die from
Breast Cancer. Typically, patients are in their forties and fifties when diagnosed. However, diagnoses
have ranged from age seven to the eighties. Current research indicates that many infants are afflicted
by Pediatric Interstitial Lung Disease. At this time there is limited data on prevalence for this group.